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  • Lightning protection of hybrid EHV/UHV AC multicircuit

    Posted Apr 13 by Reynaldo Danilo

    2 Comments 490 Views

      In the planned Huainan–Nanjing–Shanghai transmission project, the hybrid EHV/UHV AC multicircuit transmission line sharing a tower will be used in areas where the line corridors are very difficult t Read More...

  • Main and Transfer Bus

    Posted Apr 6 by Reynaldo Danilo

    2 Comments 2 Likes 345 Views

    A main and transfer bus configuration consists of two independent buses, one of which, the main bus, is normally energized. Under normal operating conditions, all incoming and outgoing circuits are fed from the main bu Read More...

  • Underground cable connection to GIS Equipment

    Posted Apr 4 by David Welson

    1 Comment 2 Likes 358 Views

      Direct link of an oil or solid isolated underground cable will require a special enclosing joint to bridge the cable isolation to the gas isolation of the GIS equipment. This is the reason isolator cones are us Read More...

  • Current Transformer Burden

    Posted Mar 15 by Reynaldo Danilo

    1 Like 303 Views

      When protective relays or other devices are added to protection circuits, care must be taken to ensure that the external secondary circuit impedance or burden does not impede the capability of the current transfo Read More...

  • Bus Zone Protection

    Posted Mar 12 by David Welson


      Bus zone protection includes, besides the bus itself the apparatus such as circuit breakers, disconnecting switches, instrument transformers and bus sensationalizing reactors, etc. Although bus zone faults are Read More...

  • what is banking of the distribution transformers

    Posted Mar 11 by Hameedullah Ekhlas


      The “banking” of the distribution transformers, that is, parallel connection, or, in other words, interconnection,of the secondary sides of two or more distribution transformers, which are suppli Read More...

  • Sectionalizers

    Posted Mar 10 by Reynaldo Danilo


      Sectionalizes automatically cut off faulted segments of distributed lines prior to an upstream circuit breaker or a recloser interruption. Such a device is normally installed downstream of a recloser. While sec Read More...

  • steppers and servos motor

    Posted Mar 4 by Reynaldo Danilo

    2 Likes 267 Views

    Stepper motors and servomotors are interesting variants of the basic dc motor described earlier. Both are able to rotate a part turn and then stop with or without holding torque. They are both externally commutated. Bu Read More...

  • Solar Heating Systems

    Posted Mar 2 by Rogelio Revetti

    1 Like 523 Views

    The heat from the sun can be directly used for heating space or water in a building, at a small scale, or it can be collected and concentrated to run industrial size steam turbines for generation of electricity, at a lar Read More...

  • Overcurrent Protection

    Posted Mar 1 by Reynaldo Danilo


    As the name suggests, this method is based on measurement of current magnitudes, and a fault may be deemed to exist when the measured current exceeds a pre-determined threshold level. It is a non-unit scheme as it does n Read More...