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  • RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION (87REF)

    Posted September 8, 2019 by Reynaldo Danilo

    813 Views

      System short circuits may occur across any two or even three lines, or, if the neutral Point is solidly earthed, between any one line and the earthed neutral the effect of a System short circuit is to produce o Read More...

  • Factors and condition effecting Corona

    Posted September 8, 2019 by Reynaldo Danilo

    508 Views

      Corona   A corona is a partial discharge and takes place at the surface of a transmission line conductor when the electrical stress, that is, the electric field intensity (or surface potential gradient), Read More...

  • Protection Against Fire Substation

    Posted September 1, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    426 Views

        with fire associated with power transformers or oil-filled reactors, where the consequences can be particularly serious and extensive because of the large volume of oil that can catch fire and sp Read More...

  • Buchholz relay

    Posted August 31, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    492 Views

      The Buchholz relay is a gas operated relay used for the protection of oil immersed transformers against all the types of internal faults. It is named after its inventor, Buchholz. The slow developing faults cal Read More...

  • Coordination Procedure

    Posted August 23, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    442 Views

        Step 1 – The Generator Owner determines the proper undervoltage trip set point for his machine. This should be based on the manufacturer’s recommendation or protection application circu Read More...

  • Electrical Network schemes

    Posted August 19, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    420 Views

      Single radial network This is the simplest, least costly network scheme and the one with least overall reliability. The single radial scheme for a net-work with several voltage levels has a tree structure, possi Read More...

  • Power Fuses

    Posted August 17, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    950 Views

    Power fuses, shown in Figure  in a typical transformer protective application, provide protection that is both reliable and economical. They are inexpensive—both in   The operating procedure for power Read More...

  • Response of a CT in saturated state

    Posted August 17, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    452 Views

      The emergence of static relays leads to revision of protection behaviour as a whole in the case of strong currents: as the CT saturates beyond a certain threshold, the first reaction is often to avoid this by r Read More...

  • Causes of cable failure and need of protection

    Posted August 16, 2019 by Reynaldo Danilo

    441 Views

      Cables are the mortar that holds the bricks of equipment in an electric system. They are not unlimited in their power capability and hence need to be protected to prevent being exposed to operation beyond their c Read More...

  • Factors Affecting Transmission System Losses

    Posted August 15, 2019 by Zone4 Engineer

    428 Views

    The following is a description of major factors that can affect transmission losses for a system.   Metering Data   Accurate metering of loads, generation, and transmission interties is critical to reconc Read More...